A handy reference 

Medical Technology Terminologies

AJAX progress indicator
  • a
  • Absolute lymphocytosis
    refers to the condition wherein there is an increase in lymphocyte count beyond the normal range.
  • Absolute polycythemia
    is wherein more erythrocytes are produced than normal and their count is truly elevated.
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    is the final stage of infection with HIV wherein, the immune system if severely damaged that they can an increasing number of severe illnesses, called opportunistic illnesses.
  • Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
    - is a screening test used in the laboratory in order to determine a possible bleeding disorder or blood clot; to help investigate recurrent miscarriages, for monitoring of unfractionated heparin anticoagulant therapy, and this test is also indicated as part of an evaluation before(...)
  • Activation unit
    refers to the combination of complement proteins which include C1, C4b and C2b-that forms the enzyme, C3 convertase, whose substrate is C3.
  • Adhesiveness
    it is the process where the platelets stick to other structures such as the blood vessel wall.
  • Affinity
    it refers to the strength of the reaction between a single antigenic determinant and a single combining site on the antibody.
  • Alloantibody
    are antibodies that are directed against the alloantigens introduced to the body by transfusion or pregnancy.
  • Alloantigen
    refers to the antigen that is derived from other members of species of host.
  • Allogenic
    refers to different individuals of the same species.
  • Alpha-fetoprotein
    is a major plasma protein that is normally made by the liver in a developing fetus and the portion of a developing embryo that is similar to the yolk cavity in bird eggs.
  • Aminoacidurias
    are disorders that cause increased amino acids in the urine.
  • Amniocentesis
    a procedure being used in order to look for certain types of birth defects.
  • Anamnestic antibody response
    also called the secondary response, is a short, prolonged, with a higher level of antibodies for a longer period of time, and the antibody predominant in this response is IgG due to the subsequent exposure to a previously encountered, recognized foreign antigen.
  • Anaplastic tumor
    refers to the tumor that is poorly differentiated by cell type but is similar to embryonic or fetal tissue.
  • Aneuploidy
    refers to the abnormal number of chromosomes such as having a single extra chromosome, or a missing chromosome.
  • Angiotensin
    is a peptide hormone whose function is to cause vasoconstriction and increase in blood pressure
  • Anisochromia
    - refers to the variation in the color density of red blood cells, which indicates unequal hemoglobin content among the erythrocytes.  
  • Anisocytosis
    - is the medical term that is being used for having red blood cells that are unequal in size.  
  • Antecubital fossa
    is the small triangular depression in the arm which is formed by the connection of the humerus with the radius and ulna of the forearm. This site is the one commonly used in venipuncture.
  • Anti-human globulin test
    is a test being performed in order to detect clinically significant unexpected antibodies that have coated cells either in vitro or in vivo.
  • Antigen switching
    is a defense mechanism invoked by parasites that involves variable synthesis of surface antigens to evade an immune response by the host.
  • Antigenic drift
    is the term that is used to indicate a gradual continuous ongoing process that results in the emergence of new strain variants.
  • Antigenic shift
    refers to the sudden change in the antigen by which an novel strain of virus is evolved which acquires the capability of infecting human beings.
  • Antihemophilic factor
    - also known as coagulation factor VIII  
  • Antineoplastic agent
    are substances with reactive properties whose main goal is to eliminate the cancer cells without affecting normal tissues.
  • Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
    are autoantibodies that are directed against the the antigens found in the cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils and monocytes.
  • Antinuclear antibody-
    an autoantibody that attacks the proteins inside the cells and is most often found in SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) along with other autoimmune disorders.    
  • Antinuclear factor
    refers to the factor in the serum that acts against the cellular nucleus.
  • Antioncogene
    a gene that suppresses a tumor and guard against unregulated cell growth.
  • Antiparietal antibody
    refers to an antibody that is directed against the cells of the stomach.
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
    is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antibodies against the cell-membrane phospholipids that provokes thrombosis in both veins and arteries, as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, or severe preeclampsia.
  • Antithrombin III-
    is an alpha-2 globulin that circulates in the plasma and it inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation cascade.  
  • Anuria
    refers to the nonpassage of urine
  • Arterial blood
    is the oxygenated blood found in left chambers of the heart, pulmonary vein and in the arteries.
  • Arthrocentesis
    is a medical procedure wherein a syringe is used to collect synovial fluid from a joint capsule.
  • Arthrus reaction
    a rare adverse reaction after vaccination with large and more severe local reactions, belonging to Type III hypersensitivity reaction.  
  • Artifacts
    are artificial particles that can occur due to errors during the blood handling or during the collection of the sample.
  • Ascites
    refers to the accumulation of protein containing (ascitic) fluid within the abdomen
  • Ataxia
    refers to the inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements such as walking, or picking up objects.
  • Ataxia-telangiectasia
    is a rare inherited disorder that affects the nervous system, the immune system and other body parts.
  • Atopic eczema
    is a very common, often chronic skin disease that makes you skin red and itchy.
  • Autoantigen
    refers to an antigen belonging to the host that normally does not elicit an immune response.
  • Autosomes
    refers to any chromosome in a eukaryotic cell that is not a sex chromosome.
  • Avidity
    this refers to the overall strength of binding between the multivalent antigens and antibodies.  
  • Avidity
    is a measure of the overall strength of binding between multivalent antigens and antibodies.
  • Axial skeleton
    refers to the bones of the head and trunk of the body.
  • b
  • B cell disease
    refers to the diseases that are associated with B- lymphocytes such as CLL.
  • Bacteremia
    refers to the bacteria in the bloodstream
  • Base pair
  • Basilic vein
    is the vein which is the third choice in venipuncture because it is more difficult to find than the other veins and it is close to the artery, nerves and tendons which makes an increased possibility of injury to the patient.
  • Benign
    a non malignant tumor that does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body.
  • Bernard-Soulier syndrome
    - is a rare inherited disorder that is characterized by unusually large platelets, low platelet count, and prolonged bleeding time.  
  • Beta-thalassemia
    - is an inherited blood disorder wherein the body has a problem in the synthesis of the beta chain of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals.  
  • Bias
    refers to the difference between a measurement and true value;may be constant or proportionate and may adversely affect the test results.
  • Bicarbonate
    is a major extracellular buffer in the body and helps regulate body pH and is necessary for various metabolic reactions in the body.
  • Bilirubin
    is a yellowish substance in the blood and comes from the breakdown of red blood cells in the body.
  • Bioavailability
    refers to the relative amount of the drug administered that reaches the systemic circulation.
  • Biofilm
    this refers to a collective of one or more types of microorganisms that can grow on living or inert surfaces and surround themselves with secreted polymers.
  • Biohazard
    is anything harmful and is a biological material that poses harm to the health of other living organisms. Examples include blood, bodily fluids and medical wastes.
  • Biosafety cabinet
    is a portable safety station used to protect personnel against biohazardous or infectious agents and to help maintain quality control of the material being worked with as it filters both the inflow and exhaust air.
  • Biosafety level
    are a series of protections designed prevent harm to laboratory personnel, as well as the surrounding environment and community.
  • Biosecurity
    these are precautionary measures that are being followed in order to stop the spread or introduction of harmful organisms to human, animal and plant life.
  • Bioterrorism
    also known as biological attack is the intentional release of viruses, bacteria or other germs that can cause illness or death and damage livestock.
  • Bipolar staining
    refers to the distinctive safety pin appearance of Yersinia pestis by the use of a polychromatic stain such as Wayson or Wright-Giemsa stain.
  • Biuret
    are pipettes that look like a graduated cylinder with a stopcock at the bottom.
  • Blast
    - this refers to the most immature form of a cell.  
  • Blast crisis
    - is wherein there are more than 20% of blasts in the blood or bone marrow of patients with a treated leukemia previously in remission.
  • Blastoconidium
    is one of the three types of vegetative “spore” arising directly from the vegetative mycelium; budding form, an example of such is seen in yeasts.
  • Blepharitis
    refers to the inflammation of the eyelids in which they become red, irritated and itchy and dandruff-like scales form on the eyelashes.
  • Blood-brain barrier
    is a highly selective semipermeable border of endothelial cells responsible for the protection of pathogens and circulating toxins that could cause brain infections, while at the same time allowing vital nutrients to reach the brain.  
  • Bloodborne pathogen
    refers to pathogenic microorganisms found in blood that can cause disease in humans.
  • Bone marrow
    - is the spongy or viscous tissue that fills the inside of your bones. The two types of bone marrow include: red bone marrow, which is responsible for the production of blood cells; and yellow marrow which helps store fat.  
  • Bordet-Gengou potato infusion agar
    is used for the detection and isolation of Bordetella pertussis from clinical specimens.
  • Botulinum toxin
    is the neurotoxic protein that is primarily produced by Clostridium botulinum.
  • Botulism
    is a rare but serious illness that is caused by the ingestion of preformed toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum.
  • Brill-Zinsser disease
    is the revival of epidemic typhus years after the initial attack. The agent that causes epidemic typhus remains viable for many years and then when the host defenses are down, it is reactivated causing recurrent typhus.
  • Broth media
    is a liquid medium without agar and is used to detect small numbers of aerobes, anaerobes, and microaerophiles.
  • Buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE)
    is the recommended medium that is being used for the selective cultivation of Legionella species.
  • Buffy coat
    - the part of an anticoagulated blood that contains white blood cells and platelets.  
  • Burkitt’s lymphoma
    is a rare form of fast-growing B-cell non-hodgkin lymphoma that may affect the jaw, central nervous system, bowel movement, kidneys, ovaries, or other organs.
  • Bursa of Fabricus
    is a pouch from the dorsal part of the cloaca in birds, that becomes the site of formation of lymphocytes with B cell characteristics.
  • Burst-forming-unit-erythroid
    refers to the earliest erythroid precursor that eventually differentiates into erythrocytes.
  • c
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)
    is protein made by the liver whose circulating concentrations rise in response to inflammation.  
  • Cabot rings
    - are thin, threadlike, ring-shaped, figure 8 shaped inclusions seen in stained red blood cells. Chediak-Higashi anomaly- is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by the presence of large granules and inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of white blood(...)
  • Cachexia
    refers to a medical condition that causes extreme weight loss and muscle wasting, and can include loss of body fat.
  • Calcitonin
    a hormone that is being produced in the thyroid gland; and is important in the regulation of the blood’s calcium and phosphate levels.
  • CAMP test
    is the test that is being used for the presumptive identification of Streptococcus agalactiae in the laboratory. A positive result is determined by enhanced, arrowhead, beta-hemolysis at the junction of the two organisms.
  • CAP- (College of American Pathologists)
    is the worlds leading organization of pathologists.
  • Capillary blood
    is blood that is collected from the capillary beds that consists of the smallest veins and arteries of the circulatory system.
  • Capnophiles
    refers to microorganisms that require a higher atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide to grow.
  • Capsid
    refers to the protein shell covering a virus.
  • Capsule
    organelle in some prokaryotic cells such as bacterial cell located outside the cell wall of a bacteria. The capsule helps the bacteria to evade phagocytosis, helps the bacteria to adhere to surfaces and it preserves nutrients or protection against dessiccation.
  • Capture assay
    is an immunoassay that uses two antibodies. The first antibody binds with the solid phase; the second antibody has an enzyme label and acts as an indicator.
  • Carbonic anhydrase
    is an enzyme that aids in the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions.
  • Carcinogen
    refers to any substance that promotes carcinogenesis, or the formation of cancer
  • Catarrhal phase
    this refers to the first stage of whooping cough and in this phase, the symptoms are mild and may go unnoticed.
  • Cation
    is a positively charged ion, with fewer electrons and protons; and they migrate towards the direction of the cathode because of their positive charge.
  • CD markers
    are useful cell markers that are used in the identification and characterization of leukocytes.
  • CD4
    are white blood cells that play an important role in the immune system and fight infection.
  • Celiac disease
    is a serious autoimmune disease that occurs due in genetically predisposed people where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
  • Cell-mediated immunity
    is the type of immunity which is mediated by the activated antigen-specific T cells.
  • Cell significance error
    refers to the error wherein more than one cell passes through the aperture of an impedance cell-counting instrument at the same time.
  • Cellulitis
    is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection that involves deep tissues; can be accompanied by bacteremia or sepsis.
  • Cellulitis
    refers to the inflammation of the the subcutaneous tissue and occurs mainly due to staphylococcus, or streptococcus entering through a crack or break in the skin.
  • Centrifugation
    is a technique that is being used in the laboratory and is achieved by applying centrifugal force and promote accelerated settling of particles in a solid-liquid mixture.
  • Centrioles
    is a small structure made up of microtubules which exists as part of the centrosome, which helps organize microtubules of the body.
  • Centrosome
    is the area of the cell wherein it serves as the main microtubule organizing centers for animal cells.
  • Cephalic vein
    is the second vein of choice in venipuncture and is a superficial vein of the upper limb and it is the one of the two main veins of the arm.
  • Cerebral ventricle
    are four interconnected cavities of the brain lined by ependymal cells and filled by CSF, spinal cord, and cauda equina.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
    is a clear, colorless bodily fluid that is found in the brain and the spinal cord. It serves various purposes for the brain and spinal cord which include: buoyancy, protection, prevention of brain ischemia, homeostasis and for the clearing of wastes.  
  • CFU-GM
    refers to colony-forming-unit-granulocyte-macrophage.
  • CH
    refers to the constant region of the heavy chain gene of an immunoglobulin.
  • Chain of custody
    is the process of the documentation in the laboratory and is done in order to ensure the reliability of the reported results
  • Chancre
    is a soft painless genital lesion that is the predominant lesion of primary syphilis.
  • Chancroid
    sexually transmitted disease caused by infection with Haemophilus ducreyi. It is a highly contagious, painful genital ulcer that may be accompanied by inguinal lymphadenopathy.
  • Check cells
    are cells that are being used in the verification of negative results obtained in indirect or direct antiglobulin tests.
  • Chemical hygiene plan
    is a written program developed in order to ensure that the employees are protected from harm due to chemicals.
  • Chimerism
    refers to a condition wherein a person has not only one, but two complete genomes in their body.
  • Chlamydia
    is a common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Chlamydia trachomatis, which has a biphasic developmental cycle.
  • Chloroma
    refers to a rare malignant tumor that is made up of granulocyte precursor cells.
  • Choleragen
    is the enterotoxin that is produced by Vibrio cholerae; it is also known as cholera toxin.
  • Chromatid
    refers to one of two identical halves of a replicated chromosome.
  • Chromatin
    a mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes during the eukaryotic cell division.
  • Chromoblastomycosis
    is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissues caused by traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi through the skin.
  • Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)
    is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency disease where certain cells involved with immunity are unable to destroy bacteria and hence, the patient suffers repeated bacterial infections.
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
    - is a type of cancer that affects a type of leukocyte called a lymphocyte.  
  • Chyle
    is a milky appearing bodily fluid consisting of lymphatic fluid and chylomicrons.  
  • Ciguatera
    is a food poisoning that is caused by eating a fish that is contaminated by ciguatera toxin.
  • Circulating anticoagulants
    they are usually autoantibodies that mature spontaneously and decrease the activity of a specific clotting factor.
  • Citrate test
    is a test that is being done in order to test an organism’s ability to utilize citrate as a source of energy.
  • Class switching
    is a mechanism that changes a B cells production of antibody from one class to another.
  • Clinitest
    is a reagent tablet that is being used in order to detect reducing substances such as various sugars.
  • CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standard’s Institute)
    is a non-profit organization that provides standards and guidelines for medical healthcare professionals through its unique consensus process.
  • Coefficient of variation
    refers to the measure of the dispersion of data points around the mean.
  • Coincidence
    refers to the event wherein, one cell is within the boundaries of the aperture at the same time, only a single pulse is counted.
  • Collagen
    is a structural protein that is found in skin, tendons, bone and cartilage.
  • Collagen disease
    refers to diseases of the skin, tendons, bone and cartilage, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Combined scatter histogram
    is a histogram that includes both the forward and right angle-scatter information.
  • Commensal
    refers to an organism living in a relationship in which one organism derives food or other benefits from another organism without hurting or helping it.
  • Commensalism
    refers to the type of relationship between two living organisms wherein one organism benefits from the other without harming it.
  • Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation
    a clinical laboratory education, consultation, and accreditation organization.
  • Common immunocyte
    refers to any cell of the lymphoid series that can react with an antigen to produce an antibody or participate in cell-mediated reactions.
  • Competitive immunoassay
    is a type of immunoassay that is based upon the competition of labeled and unlabeled ligand for a limited number of antibody binding sites.
  • Complement fixation
    is a technique being used in order to detect and quantify antibody that serology does not agglutinate or precipitate when reacted with its antigen. If complement is fixed by a specific antigen-antibody reaction, it will be unable to combine with the indicator system.
  • Complement system
    is a part of the immune system that refers to a series of proteins that play a critical role in inflammation and defense against bacterial infections.
  • Compliance
    refers to the adherence to the established laws.
  • Components
    are constituents of blood, separated from whole blood that are used in tranfusion.
  • Constitutional aplastic anemia
    is a syndrome that is characterized by chronic pancytopenia with or without severe definite congenital anomalies in which there is evidence of a constitutional origin.
  • Contact group
    - this group of coagulation factors interact in vitro to initiate coagulation on artificial surfaces through activation of factor XI.  
  • Continuous bacteremia
    a bacteremia that occurs when organisms that are coming from an intravascular source and are consistently present in the bloodstream.
  • Convalescence
    is a phase that is marked by the complete resolution of clinical signs of the illness, injury or surgery.
  • Convertase
    refers to an enzyme that is associated with the complement system.  
  • Cooley’s anemia
    - refers to the most severe form of beta thalassemia and persons affected have the two defective beta hemoglobin genes.  
  • Cooperativity
    refers to a form of allosteric regulation that can amplify enzyme activity.
  • Corrected count increment
    refers to the measure of the anticipated increase in the platelet count following a platelet transfusion.
  • Corticotropin
    releasing hormone- a hormone made by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary gland.
  • Cortisol
    a steroid hormone that is being produced by the adrenal glands and this hormone regulate blood sugar levels, body metabolism and is best known for helping fuel your body’s “fight or flight” instinct in a crisis.
  • Coulters principle
    - is a method of cell counting that is based on measurable changes in electrical impedance produced by nonconductive particles suspended in an electrolyte.  
  • Countercurrent multiplication
    refers to the process by which a small osmolality difference, at each level of the outer medulla, between fluid flows in ascending and descending limbs of the loops of Henle, is multiplied by the countercurrent flow configuration to establish a large axial osmolality difference from 300 mOsm/L(...)
  • Creeping eruption
    is a human skin infection that is caused by hookworms.
  • Critical values
    are values in the laboratory that are grossly abnormal and outside the normal range to a degree that may constitute an immediate health risk to the individual or require immediate action on the part of the ordering physician.
  • Cross-reactivity
    happens when an antibody raised against one specific antigen has a competing high affinity toward a different antigen.  
  • Crossing over
    refers to the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes.
  • Crystal-induced arthritis
    is caused by the accumulation of MSU,CPPD,BCP, including hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate crystals in the joints of persons with gout or pseudogout.
  • Cystinosis
    refers to the rare genetic disorder wherein there is accumulation of the amino acid cystine within cells, forming crystals that can build up and damage the cells.
  • Cystinuria
    is a disease wherein there is high concentrations of cystine in the urine, leading to the formation of cystine stones in the kidneys, ureter, and bladder.
  • Cystitis
    is the inflammation of the bladder caused a bladder infection. Common causes of cystitis include Escherichia coli infection, exposure to chemotherapy drugs, radiation, prolonged exposure to catheters and may also be a result of a complication to other disorders.  
  • Cytokinesis
    refers to the part of cell division where the cytoplasm splits in two and the cell divides.
  • Cytopathic effect
    refers to the morphological changes occuring in cells due to viral infections.
  • d
  • D-xylose absorption test
    is a test that determines how the body’s ability to absorb xylose. It measures the xylose level in the blood and urine after a standard amount is ingested in order to evaluate the person’s ability to absorb carbohydrates in general.
  • Dacryoadenitis
    refers to the inflammation of the lacrimal glands.
  • Dacryocystitis
    refers to the infection or inflammation of the nasolacrimal sac.
  • Dane particle
    the infectious particle found within the body of an Hepatitis B infected patient.  
  • Darkfield microscopy
    a specialized type of microscope that is used to examine live microorganisms that are invisible in the ordinary light microscope, cannot be stained by standard methods, or so are distorted by staining that their characteristics then cannot be identified.
  • Darting motility
    is a type of movement pattern that is one of the characteristics of Campylobacter spp.
  • Definitive host
    a host in which a parasite reaches sexual maturity and undergoes sexual reproduction.
  • Degranulation
    is the loss of the granules such as in your basophil when an antigen bind to two adjacent IgE antibody molecules located on the surface of mast cells.
  • Delayed hypersensitivity
    is a hypersensitivity reaction that involves sensitized T lymphocytes rather than antibodies.
  • Deletion
    is a type of mutation that involves the loss of a genetic material.
  • Delta agent
    refers to a viral infection caused by the hepatitis D virus, and causes symptoms only in people who have hepatitis B infection.
  • Delta check
    is a quality control tool in the laboratory wherein the laboratory test result of the patient is being compared in the previous ones.
  • Delta granule
    - is a type of storage granule that is found in mature platelets.
  • Dendogram
    is a diagram that shows the interrelationships between a group of organisms.
  • Deoxyhemoglobin
    - refers to the form of hemoglobin without oxygen.
  • Department of Health and Human Services
    is a cabinet-level executive branch of the department of the U.S federal government and its goal is to enhance the health and well-being of all Americans, by providing for effective health and human services, and by fostering sound, sustained advances in the sciences underlying medicine,(...)
  • Dermatophyte
    a pathogenic fungus that infects the keratinized parts of the body (skin, hair, and nails).
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM)
    a disorder wherein the glucose levels are abnormally high due to insufficient insulin production to meet its needs.
  • Diagnosis
    the process in which the nature of a disorder, or a disease is determined.
  • Diapedesis
    - is the event wherein the leukocytes migrate from the blood circulation to the sites of inflammation or tissue injury and in the recirculation of lymphocytes from the blood to the lymphatic compartment.  
  • Diarrhea
    refers to the increase in the frequency of bowel movements or a decrease in the form of stool that may be due to bacteria,parasite,problems in the GIT, food intolerances, antibiotics etc.
  • Differential centrifugation
  • Differential media
    media that is designed to inhibit the growth of some organisms while encouraging the growth of others.
  • Dilution
    refers to the addition of a solvent, which decreases the concentration of the solute in the solution and may reduce the interfering substances to a point where it no longer interferes with the test.
  • Dilution factor
    refers to the ratio of the concentrated stock being used or stock solution to the total volume.
  • Direct antiglobulin test (DAT)
    is a test used primarily to determine whether red blood cells have been coated in vivo with immunoglobulin, complement, or both.
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC
     - is a serious coagulation disorder that is characterized by systemic activation of blood coagulation, which results in the generation and deposition of fibrin, leading to microvascular thrombi in various organs and contributing to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.  
  • Distal convoluted tubule
    is the nephron segment that lies immediately downstream of the macula densa, and is responsible for the reabsorption of calcium,sodium,and chloride and regulates the pH of urine by secreting protons and absorbing bicarbonate.
  • Diverticulitis
    refers to the inflammation of the pouches that can form in your intestines.
  • Dot blot
    a technique being used in order to determine the presence of protein of interest in a sample.  
  • Dot blot
    is a simple and quick technique that is being used to determine if your antibodies and detection system are effective.
  • Down syndrome
    refers to the medical condition wherein the person has an extra chromosome.
  • Downey cells
    refers to the early classification system of certain forms of variant lymphocytes.
  • Drug absorption
    refers to the process wherein the drug moves from its site of delivery into the bloodstream.
  • Drug distribution
    refers to the circulation and diffusion of a drug to and from the blood and various tissues of the body and the relative proportions if drug in the tissues.
  • Drug elimination
    refers to the irreversible clearance of a drug from the body by a variety of mechanisms.
  • Drugs of abuse
    refers to the use of drugs, inappropriately or illegally for the purpose of creating pleasurable effects on the brain.
  • Dural sinuses
    are venous channels found between the endosteal and meningeal layers of dura mater in the brain. Its primary function is to drain all the venous blood within the cranial cavity and deliver it back to the cardiovascular circulation, via the internal jugular vein below the jugular foramen, which(...)
  • Dysentery
    is a type of intestinal inflammation that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and/or blood in the feces which if untreated is often fatal.
  • Dyserythropoiesis
    refers to the defective development of the white blood cells.
  • Dyspnea
    refers to shortness of breath, or difficulty in breathing.
  • Dysproteinemia
    is a state that is characterized by abnormal, often excessive, synthesis of Ig molecules or subunits.
  • e
  • Eclampsia
    is a severe toxic complication of preeclampsia.
  • Ecthyma gangrenosum
    is a cutaneous skin infection most commonly associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia.
  • Ectoparasite
    a parasite that lives on the external surface of another living organism.
  • Eczema
    an inflammatory condition that cause the skin to become inflamed or irritated.  
  • Edema
    this refers to the swelling and puffiness in different areas of the body when too much fluid becomes trapped in the tissues of the body, particularly the skin.  
  • Edema factor
    is a protein secreted by Bacillus anthracis, and is one of the three proteins that make up the anthrax toxin.
  • EDTA
    - also known as Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is the most commonly used anticoagulant utilized for routine hematology.  
  • Efflux pumps
    are transport proteins which force out toxic substrates from within cells into the external environment.
  • El Tor
    is a strain of Vibrio cholerae that belong to the serotype O1.
  • Electrolyte
    refers to the electrically charged materials and compounds that help for the normal functioning of the body.
  • Elek test
    a test being done in order to determine whether or not a strain of Corynebacterium diptheriae is toxigenic.
  • Elementary body
    is the metabolically nonreplicating infectious particle form of Chlamydia.
  • Elution
    refers to the removal of antibodies bound to red cell membrane. The objective is to recover the antibody in a usable form.  
  • Emerging pathogens
    refers to the pathogens whose incidence is increasing following its appearance in a new host population or whose incidence is increasing in an existing population as a result of long-term changes in its underlying epidemiology.
  • Emerging zoonoses
    a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved.
  • Empyema
    a collection of pus in the pleural cavity, which is the area between your lungs and the inner surface of your chest wall.
  • Endemic syphilis
    an infection that is very similar to syphilis but is not sexually transmitted. It is caused by the Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum spirochaete bacterium.
  • Endocrine gland
    are ductless internal glands of secretion and they secrete their products,hormones, directly into the blood.
  • Endocytosis
    - refers to the process in which the plasma membrane captures small molecules, macromolecules, with the subsequent formation of membrane-bound vacuoles within the cytoplasm.  
  • Engineering controls
    refers to objects that are being used in the workplace that isolate or remove a hazard, reducing the risk of exposure.
  • Enteric fever
    is a systemic disease that is caused by the Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi bacteria.
  • Enterics
    are a large, heterogenous group of gram-negative rods whose natural habitat is the intestinal tract.
  • env gene
    refers to a viral gene of a retrovirus such as HIV that encodes for a polyprotein that contains numerous glycosylation sites.
  • Enzyme
    are biological catalysts that hasten up chemical reactions that take place within the cells in our body.
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
    is a technique being used in order to measure antibodies, antigens, proteins and glycoproteins in biological samples.
  • Epitope
    also known as antigen determinant is the part of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches itself.
  • Erysipelas
    is a bacterial skin infection that affects upper dermis that characteristically extends into the superficial cutaneous lymphatics.
  • Erysipeloid
    is an acute bacterial infection of traumatized skin and other organs caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.
  • Erythrocyte
    - also known as red blood cells, are anucleate , biconcave cells, filled with hemoglobin, that is responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues.  
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
    - also known as sed rate is a test that is performed to measure how quickly red blood cells settle at the bottom of the test tube that contains a blood sample.  
  • Eschar
    is a dead tissue found in a full thickness wound that sheds or falls off from the skin.
  • Estimated glomerular filtration rate
    is a test that measures your level of kidney function and determine your stage of kidney disease. The physician can do this by calculating it from the results of your blood creatinine test, your age, body size and gender.
  • Etiologic agent
    refers to a microorganism causing a disease.
  • Evacuated tube system
    is a process of blood collection that is the standard equipment for routine venipuncture.
  • Exanthem
    is any eruptive skin rash that is often related to a viral infection.
  • Exchange transfusion
    refers to the procedure which involves removal of patient’s blood completely and replacement with fresh blood or plasma of the donor.
  • Exocrine gland
    they are glands that have ducts and secrete materials onto some surface- generally the skin, gastrointestinal tract, or respiratory epithelium.
  • f
  • F-test
    is a statistical test that is being used in order to compare two or more groups of data.
  • Fab fragments
    these represent the antigen binding fragment of an intact antibody containing both the variable and constant regions of both heavy and light chains.
  • Factor H
    is a major regulator of complement activation that blocks the formation of C3 convertase and is a cofactor for the cleavage of C3b by Factor I.  
  • Factor I
    is a protein of the complement system which is responsible for the cleavage of C3b and C4b.
  • Fasting specimens
    refers to the blood specimens in the laboratory drawn from a patient who has not eaten for at least 12 hours.
  • Fatty acids
    they are carboxylic acids and are the major consituents of triglycerides and phospholipids
  • Fc receptor
    the portion of an antibody responsible for the activation of phagocytes and binding to antibody receptor on cells and the C1q component of the complement.  
  • Fecal leukocytes
    the presence of white blood cells in the stool and could be a result of inflammatory diarrhea, bacterial infection in the digestive system and response to infection in the digestive system.  
  • Ferritin
    - refers to the protein that contains iron and is the primary form of iron stored inside of cells.  
  • Fibrin
    - is an insoluble protein that is produced in the body in response to bleeding and is the major component of the blood clot.  
  • Fibrinogen
    - also known as Factor I  
  • Fimbriae
    short, sticky, proteinaceous, nonmotile extensions of some bacteria that help the cells to adhere to one another and to the substances in the environment.
  • First-order kinetics
    refers to the reaction wherein a constant proportion of the drug is cleared per unit of time. The rate of elimination in first-order kinetics is proportional to the amount of drug in the body. The higher the concentration, the greater the amount of drug is eliminated per unit of time.
  • Fitzgerald factor
    - also known as HMWK, Flaujeac factor and Williams-Fitzgerald-Flaujeac factor.  
  • Flame photometry
    is a technique that is being used in order to measure the wavelength and intensity of light that is being emitted from a burning solution.
  • Flocculation
    refers to the process wherein colloids in a suspension can be obtained in an aggregated form.
  • Folate
    - it is the synthetic form of folate, which is one of the vitamins of the B complex is a B vitamin that helps make DNA and other genetic material.  
  • Frozen thawed red cells
    are red cells that can be frozen with the use of cryopreservation techniques.
  • g
  • gag gene
    is a gene of a retrovirus such as HIV that forms higher ordered structures required for the correct assembly, budding, and maturation of new infectious particles.
  • Gaucher’s disease
    - is a monocytic disorder that is caused by low levels of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, which breaks down a fatty chemical in the body called glucocerebroside.  
  • Gene chip
    a collection of microscopic DNA spots that are attached to a solid surface.
  • Germinal center
    the interior location of secondary follicles where B cells mature, proliferate, differentiate, and mutate their antibody genes during a normal immune response to an infection.
  • Glioma
    is a type of tumor that occurs in the brain and spinal cord and begins in the glial cells.  
  • Glomerular filtrate
    refers to the fluid in the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule of the nephron that has been filtered from the capillaries of the glomerulus.
  • Glomerulus
    is a cluster of capillaries that is responsible for the filtration of plasma to produce glomerular filtrate, which passes down the length of the nephron tubule to form urine.
  • Gluconeogenesis
    is the metabolic process in which the result is the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates, such as lactate and amino acids.
  • Glycocalyx
    - an outer part of the platelet that surrounds the platelet’s cellular membrane.  
  • Glycogenolysis
    refers to the process in which the glycogen is broken down into glucose to provide immediate energy and to maintain blood glucose levels during fasting.
  • Glycolysis
    refers to the anaerobic process in which the goal is to turn glucose into pyruvate, so it can enter krebs cycle to produce energy and generate more energy in the process.
  • Glycosuria
    is wherein the urine contains more glucose than usual exceeding the renal threshold
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin
    refers to the subfraction of normal hemoglobin that is formed during the maturation of the red blood cell.
  • Gonorrhea
    is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  • Good Manufacturing Practices
    are procedres used by blood banks and transfusion services as a guideline for work practices.
  • Granulocytes
    - refers to white blood cells that have granules of enzymes which help to digest the invading microbes
  • Ground pepper
    are debris in joint prosthesis that look like ground pepper present in synovial fluid.
  • Gummas
    are white-gray and rubbery, occur singly or multiply; symptom of tertiary syphilis.
  • h
  • Halophilic
    a salt loving organism that can grow in higher salt concentrations.
  • Haptoglobin
    is a protein that binds free plasma hemoglobin.
  • HAZMATs-
    is term that is used to describe events that involve hazardous materials or specialized teams who deal with these incidents.
  • Hematin crystals
    are heme breakdown products that accumulate and crystalize in macrophages that have digested erythrocytes.
  • Hematuria
    refers to the presence of blood or intact red blood cells (RBCs) in the urine and may be classified as gross, or macroscopic hematuria, and microscopic hematuria wherein the blood can only be seen under the microscope.  
  • Hemoglobin A
    is the major form of hemoglobin that is present in adults.
  • Hemoglobin F
    is the major hemoglobin that is present in fetus.
  • Hemoglobin S
    is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that is found in sickle cell anemia and/or sickle cell trait.
  • Hemoglobinemia
    is a blood condition in which red blood cells split open resulting in excess amounts of hemoglobin in blood.
  • Hemoglobinopathies
    refers to genetic disorders that affect the structure of the hemoglobin molecule or a deficiency in the synthesis of normal adult hemoglobin.
  • Hemolysin
    is a substance that destroys erythrocytes and liberates hemoglobin.
  • Hemophilia A
    is a hereditary disorder wherein the body doesn’t have enough factor VIII.
  • Hemophilia B
    is a hereditary disorder wherein the body doesn’t have enough factor IX.
  • Hemorrhage
    refers to the blood that is escaping from your circulatory system from the damaged blood vessels to spaces inside the body.
  • Hemosiderin
    - is an iron-containing, granular, brown pigment that is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin or an abnormal metabolic pathway of ferritin.  
  • Heparin
    - is an anticoagulant that is used to prevent blood clots from forming in people who have certain medical conditions or who are undergoing medical procedures that increase the chances that clots will form.  
  • Hilus
    the concave part of the bean-shape where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the kidney.  
  • hinge region
    the area of an antibody molecule that is responsible for facilitating the interaction between the antigen and the antibody, and in facilitating complement activation.  
  • Hippurate hydrolysis
    test being used in the presumptive identification of Gardnerella vaginalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and group B streptococci, by detecting the ability of the organism to hydrolyze hippurate.
  • Homogentisic acid
    is an intermediate in the breakdown of the catabolism of tyrosine and phenylalanine. Accumulation of such is a result of the failure of the enzyme homogentisic acid 1,2-dioxygenase due to a genetic mutation in this enzyme and is associated with alkaptonuria.
  • Howell-Jolly bodies
    - are very course, round cytoplasmic inclusions that contain DNA.  
  • Human blood bilayer tween agar
    is a solid medium recommended for the use in qualitative procedures for selective isolation and presumptive identification of Gardnerella vaginalis.
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG
    is a glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the corpeus luteum to produce progesterone to maintain the pregnancy.  
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    is a virus that attacks the cells in the immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, often called T cells.
  • Humoral immunity
    a component of the adaptive immunity where B cells secrete antibodies, which circulate in the blood as a soluble protein.
  • Hyaluronate
    is the extracellular matrix that is found in the joint fluid connective tissue, epithelium, and neural tissues.
  • Hyperacute rejection
    is a type of transplant rejection that occurs within minutes or hours in presensitized patients who have circulating HLA,ABO or other alloantibody to donor endothelial surface antigens.  
  • Hypercoagulable state
    - is the medical term for a condition wherein the blood tends to clot too much.
  • Hypersegmentation
    - a condition wherein the neutrophils contain more than five nuclear segments.  
  • Hypersensitivity
    are immune responses that are exaggerated or inappropriate against an antigen or allergen.  
  • Hypervariable region
    small regions of high amino acid sequence diversity within the variable regions of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor. They correspond to the complementarity determining regions
  • Hyperviscosity syndrome
    are a group of symptoms caused by increased blood viscosity in the circulation.  
  • Hypochromia
    - is a term used when the central pallor of red blood cells exceeds one third of the cell’s diameter and the erythrocytes have less color than normal when examined under a microscope.  
  • Hypolobulation
    - is a condition wherein the neutrophils fail to have normal segmentation.
  • Hypoxia
    - refers to the state or condition wherein there is a deprived amount of oxygen in the body tissues.  
  • i
  • Ictotest
    a commercialized reagent tablet used in the laboratory to test the presence of bilirubin in the urine.  
  • Immediate spin crossmatch
    is a procedure that is only performed after an antibody screen is done and found to be negative on a current specimen.
  • Immune complex
    is a protein aggregate comprised of a network of immunoglobulins bound to epitopes on cognate antigens.
  • Immunity
    refers to the state of being protected against foreign antigens.  
  • Immunoassay
    these are quick and accurate laboratory tests or procedures that can be used on-site and in the laboratory to detect specific molecules.  
  • Immunocompetent
    this means that the immune system is working properly and that the body is capable of mounting an appropriate immune response, when necessary.  
  • Immunocompromised
    refers to an individual with deficient immunologic mechanisms either because of an immunodeficiency disorder, or because the system has been rendered so by immunosuppressive agents.  
  • Immunodiffusion
    a classic technique that is being used to detect the presence of antibodies and determine their specificity by looking at the lines of identity (precipitin lines).  
  • Immunology
    refers to the study of the structure and function of the immune system.  
  • Immunosuppression
    is the process that involves an act that reduces the activation or efficacy of the immune system.  
  • Immunosuppressive agent
    is any drug or chemical agent that causes immunosuppression, including immunosuppressive drugs and some environmental toxins.  
  • Immunosurveillance
    is a process of the immune system to get rid of cancer cells as they form has long been postulated.  
  • Immunotherapy
    is a treatment that is designed to harness the ability of the body’s immune system to combat infection or disease.  
  • Immunotoxin
    these are antibodies that are coupled to toxins to help destroy cancer cells.
  • Inborn errors of metabolism
    are rare genetic inherited disorders that generally result from a defect in an enzyme or transport protein which results in a block in a metabolic pathway.
  • Indigenous flora
    are microorganisms that are known to afford protection against colonization by pathogenic microorganisms.
  • Indole test
    a test being performed in order to determine the ability of certain bacteria to decompose the amino acid trptophane to indole, which accumulates in the medium.
  • Infertility
    is a disease wherein there is a failure of a male or a female to achieve a clinical pregnancy.
  • Informed consent
    is the process in which a health care provider educates the patient about purpose, potential risks, benefits, and alternatives of a given procedure or intervention.
  • Innate resistance
    refers to the resistance to a disease that an individual is born with (innate).  
  • Insulin
    it is a peptide hormone that is made by the pancreas that allows the body to use glucose from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use.
  • Interferons
    are set of proteins which are released by virus infected cells in vivo and which reacts with uninfected cells so as to render them resistant to infection to virus.
  • Intermediate host
    a host in which the parasite passes its larval or asexual stages.
  • Isolation streak
    a useful technique done in order to separate organisms in a mixed culture, or when you need to study the colony morphology of an organism.
  • k
  • Karyorrhexis
    - refers to the irreversible cell death and its chromatin is distributed irregularly throughout the cytoplasm.  
  • Kernicterus
    a neurologic syndrome that results when bilirubin is deposited in brain cells and disrupts the neuronal metabolism and function.  
  • Killer T cells
    are type of immune cells that kill certain cells, including foreign cells, cancer cells, and cells infected with a virus.  
  • Kinins
    are small biologically active peptides that cause inflammation and affect blood pressure.
  • Kuppfer cell
    is a specialized phagocytic type of cell that lines the sinusoids of the liver
  • Kwashiorkor
    is a disease wherein there is a marked protein malnutrition bilateral extremity swelling.
  • l
  • Lancefield classification
    is a system of classification of streptococci based on the presence of absence of antigenic carbohydrate on the cell surface.
  • Latent
    concealed, hidden or inactive.  
  • Latent infection
    an infection wherein the host does not shed the infectious agent which lies dormant within the host without symptoms.  
  • Leprosy
    is a chronic, progressive bacterial infection that is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae.
  • Leukapheresis
    a procedure in which whole blood is removed from a donor; and separation is done in order to collect white blood cells.
  • Leukocidin
    is a cytotoxin which causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis.  
  • Leukocyte esterase
    is an enzyme present in most of the white blood cells (WBCs).  
  • Leukocytosis
    - refers to the significant increase in the number of white blood cells due to any cause.  
  • Leukopenia
    - is a condition wherein an individual has a severe decrease in the total white blood cell count.  
  • Leukotrienes
    are metabolites of arachidonic acid and are involved in asthmatic and allergic reactions and act to sustain inflammatory reactions.
  • Liley graph
    is being used to correct for gestations of less than 27 weeks because bilirubin levels normally peak 23-25 weeks of gestation in unaffected fetuses.
  • Linkage disequilibrium
    a non-random association of alleles at two or more loci.
  • Lipemia
    refers to the turbidity of the sample caused by an abnormally high concentration of lipids in the blood.
  • Lumbar puncture
    a medical procedure that is being done in order to collect a cerebrospinal fluid for physicians to diagnose disorders of the brain and the spinal cord.  
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
    is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1,L2 or L3 and is a long-term infection of the lymphatic system.
  • m
  • M protein
    is an important virulence factor found in the cell wall of Streptococcus pyogenes and play multiple roles in streptococcal infection.
  • Macula densa
    are cells of the distal convoluted tubule that interact with the juxtaglomerular apparatus, and its main function is to regulate blood pressure and filtration rate of the glomerulus.
  • Malabsorption
    is a disorder wherein the small intestine is unable to absorb nutrients.
  • Maldigestion
    defined as defective hydrolysis of nutrients as a result of pancreatic exocrine or bile salt deficiency.  
  • Marasmus
    is a severe form of malnutrition and results when a person does not consume enough protein and calories.
  • Massive transfusion
    is defined as the replacement by transfusion of more than 50 percent of a patient’s blood volume in 24 hours.
  • McFarland turbidity standards
    is used in the microbiology laboratory as a reference to adjust the turbidity of bacterial suspensions so that the number of bacteria will be within a given range to standardize microbial testing.
  • MCH (Mean corpuscular hemoglobin)
    - refers to the average amount of hemoglobin in each erythrocyte.  
  • MCHC ( Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)
    - is the average concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of blood.  
  • MCV (Mean corpuscular volume)
    - is a measure of the average volume of a red blood cell.  
  • Medical negligence
    occurs when a health care professional does not treat a patient with the professionally recognized medical standard of care, resulting in injury, harm, or death.
  • Melena
    this refers to black tarry stools, which usually occurs as a result of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  
  • Membrane attack complex (MAC)
    a lytic complex of the terminal components of the complement cascade which includes: C5,C6,C7 C8 and multiple copies of C9, that forms in the membrane of target cells.  
  • Memory cells
    a B-cell subtype that are formed after a primary infection.
  • Meninges
    refers to the membranous layers that cover the brain and the spinal cord.
  • Mesophile
    is an organism that best grows in moderate temperature, neither too hot cold.
  • Microalbuminuria
    is wherein there is an abnormal increase in albumin excretion rate with the specific range of 20-200ug/minute or 30-300mg/24 hours.
  • Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)
    is defined as the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial that will inhibit the growth of a bacterium.
  • Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)
    this is defined as the maximum dilution of the product that will kill a test organism and can be determined by subculturing the last clear MIC tube onto growth medium and examining for bacterial growth.
  • Minor crossmatch
    is a type of crossmatch used if transfusing small patients, in which hemodilution is less likely to occur.
  • Moderate complexity testing
    these are tests that are catergorized as of medium complexity and are regulated under CLIA and require meeting accreditation, personnel regulations, quality management, and inspection regulations.
  • Moist heat
    is a procedure wherein high-pressure steam is used to destroy microorganisms by the irreversible denaturation of enzymes and structural proteins.
  • Monoclonal antisera
    is antisera where antibodies are derived from a single clone of cells.
  • Morphology of cells
    is the observance and description of cell size, shape, structure, and form of cells.
  • Motility evaluation
    describes the motility of sperm and are classified as non-motile, progressively motile, or non-progressively motile.
  • Myeloma cell
    these are plasma cells derived from malignant tumor strains.
  • n
  • Narrow spectrum
    in antimicrobial activity, this means that the antibiotics used for the specific infection when the causative organism is known and will not kill as many of the normal microorganisms in the body as the broad spectrum antibiotics.
  • Natural killer (NK) cells
    are innate immune cells that show spontaneous cytolytic activity against cells under stress such as tumor cells and virus-infected cells.  
  • Nephritis
    is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the nephron which are the functional units of the kidneys.  
  • Nitrite
    refers to the substance that is formed by the reduction of nitrate by nitrate-reducing bacteria.
  • Nonself
    is anything that the immune system recognizes as a foreign substance.  
  • Normetanephrine
    is a metabolite of norepinephrine and is created by the action of catechol-O-methyl transferase on norepinephrine.
  • Nutrient
    are molecules that are found in food that is necessary for the normal physiologic function.
  • o
  • Obligate aerobe
    refers to organisms that require a sufficient amount of oxygen for growth and multiplication.
  • Occult blood
    refers to the blood that is hidden in the naked eye and this can be a sign of colorectal cancer, ulcers, polyps or other problems.  
  • Oligospermia
    refers to the male condition wherein there is lesser sperms in the semen than normal sperm count.  
  • OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
    is an agency that is responsible in ensuring safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women (health workers).
  • Otorrhea
    means drainage of liquid from the ear. Causes of otorrhea may include: otitis externa, chronic otitis media, acute otitis media with perforation and leaking of cerebrospinal fluid into the ear.
  • Oval fat bodies
    are renal tubular epithelial cells or macrophages filled with lipids to the extent where they are not recognizable and is a common finding in the urine sediment of patients with high grade proteinuria.
  • Overflow disorders
    refers to the disorders that cause increased sugars, amino acids, or other substances in the urine to increased blood levels.
  • Oxidase test
    is a test being used to identify bacteria that produce cytochrome c oxidase, an enzyme of the bacterial electron transport chain.
  • p
  • Pancreatic insufficiency
    is a condition wherein the pancreas does not make enough of a specific enzyme the body uses to digest food in the small intestine.
  • Pancreatitis
    refers to the pathologic inflammation of the pancreas.
  • Panel
    are series of cells coming from different donors used in the antibody identification test.
  • Paracrine
    refers to the hormone that acts by locally by diffusing from its source to target cells in the body.
  • partial D
    a change in the appearance or structure of exposed parts of the D antigen.
  • Pedigree chart
    is a chart that shows the genetic history of a family over several generations.
  • Peer review
    a process commonly used in order to evaluate a laboratory department, or a specific procedure by a group consisting of ones equals.
  • Penetration-
    refers to the capacity of the man’s sperm to move through the cervical mucus, swim up the endometrial cavity and down the fallopian tubes, and penetrate or fertilize the ovum.  
  • Pericardiocentesis-
    is a medical procedure that is done in order to remove excess fluid from the pericardial sac.  
  • Peripheral tolerance
    refers to the immunological tolerance developed after autoreactive T and B cells mature and enter the periphery.  
  • Petechiae
    also known as coagulation factor II, is a naturally occurring enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which is an integral step in clot formation.
  • Phenylketonuria
    is a rare inborn metabolic disorder that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body.
  • Phlebotomist
    refers to an individual such as a nurse, or other health worker that is trained in obtaining blood samples.
  • Phlebotomy
    refers to the process of withdrawing blood by making a puncture in a vein.
  • Photochromogens
    these are Mycobacterium spp. which develop pigment in or after being exposed to light.
  • Physician office labs (POLS)
    refers to a clinical laboratory that is associated with physician office labs.
  • Platelet refractoriness
    refers to repeated failure to achieve the satisfactory responses to platelet transfusions.
  • Pleocytosis
    is a medical term that refers to an increased cell count particularly the white blood cell count in blood, or bodily fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).  
  • Point of care testing (POCT)
    refers to any patient testing that is being done at, or near, the actual location of the patient.  
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    a technique that is being used in order to make many copies of a specific DNA region in vitro.
  • Polymorphism
    is defined as the expression of one or two variants of a particular DNA sequence.
  • Polyuria
    a condition where the body urinates more than usual. The urine volume is considered excessive if it equals more than 2.5 liters per day.
  • Postanalytical errors
    are errors in the clinical laboratory that occur after the testing process has been completed and in the reporting of results and correct interpretation of the data by the physicians.  
  • PPE
    is equipment used by healthcare workers and is being worn in order minimize exposure to work hazards that could cause serious workplace injuries and illnesses.
  • Preanalytical errors-
    refers to errors that occur before testing is done on specimen analyzers in the clinical laboratory.
  • Preservative
    these are substances that are being used in order to prevent disintegration of the cells.
  • Primer
    a short nucleic acid sequence and are used to demarcate the segment of the DNA template to be amplified.
  • Proficiency testing
    is an important tool that is being used in laboratories to show the evidence of their performance and to ensure that their analytical results can be trusted.
  • Proglottid
    one of the segments or joints of a tapeworm. Each proglottid contains both male and female reproductive organs.
  • Prohormone
    refers to the precursor of the active hormone.
  • Proinsulin
    is the precursor to insulin. To turn the food into energy, the pancreas make proinsulin. The proinsulin in turn, is made into insulin and another protein called c-peptide.
  • Prostate gland
    an apricot or walnut-size shaped part of the male reproductive organ which is responsible in secreting prostate fluid, one of the components of semen.  
  • Protein C
    - is an inactive protein. When activated, it plays a significant part in blood clot, inflammation, and cell death regulation.  
  • Protein error of indicators
    is the principle for testing protein in the urine reagent strip test wherein there is a color-change phenomenon occuring because proteins act as a hydrogen ion acceptors at a constant pH.
  • Protein S
    - is a cofactor of activated Protein C for the degradation of activated factors Va and VIIIa.  
  • Proteinuria
    is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
  • Pseudochylous
    a milky effusion that does not contain chylomicrons.
  • Punnett square
    is a diagram that is used as a way of discovering all the potential combinations of genotypes that can occur in children, given the genotypes of their parents.
  • Pyelonephritis
    is an infection of the renal tubules of the kidney that generally begins in your urethra or bladder and travels to one or both of your kidneys.  
  • Pyuria
    refers to a medical condition wherein there is an elevated number of white blood cells in the urine, which can cause the urine to be cloudy or contain pus.  
  • q
  • Quality assurance
    refers to the system or process that involves the entire testing process: preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic factors.
  • Quality control
    is the system being used for recognizing and minimizing errors. This ensures both the precision and accuracy of patient sample results.
  • r
  • Rapid plasma reagin test (RPR)
    is a screening blood test that looks for antibodies to syphilis.
  • Reagent grade water
    is a water that is suitable for reagent and standard preparation in the laboratory.
  • Receptor
    is a protein molecule that is found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of the cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell and when such chemicals bind to a receptor, they cause some tissue or cellular response.
  • Recipient
    a person that receives blood transfusion, or blood components.
  • Recovered plasma
    is collected through whole blood donation in which plasma is separated from its cellular components. This does not qualify as fresh frozen plasma, but may be used for fractionation.
  • Redox potential
    refers to the measure of the affinity of the compounds for electrons.
  • Reference interval
    refers to the usual values for a healthy population.
  • Reference method
    are methods being used in the laboratory and usually has small, estimated inaccuracies, relative to the end use requirement.
  • Renal columns
    are connective tissue extensions of the renal cortex in between the renal pyramids anchoring the cortex. The renal columns help the renal cortex to be better anchored.
  • Renal pyramids
    are cone-like shaped kidney tissues that filter blood and remove unwanted substances in the body.
  • Renin
    is an enzyme that is produced and stored by the cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the renal nephron and is involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates the body’s water balance and blood pressure level.  
  • Rh immune globulin
    is a medication that is used to prevent an immune response to Rh positive blood sample in people with an Rh negative blood type. This may also be used in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
  • Rh null
    is one of the rarest blood types which lacks all Rh antigens.
  • Rhinorrhea
    refers to the condition wherein there is a significant amount of nasal discharge.
  • Rocky mountain spotted fever
    is a bacterial infection transmitted by a tick caused by the organism Rickettsia ricketsii.
  • Rosette
    refers to the in vitro formation clump of cells consisting a central cell surrounded by other cells.
  • Rouleaux
    are coin-like stacking of red blood cells that are caused by poor blood smear preparation or an increased serum proteins, particularly fibrinogen and globulins.
  • Run over
    is wherein there is the spillage of chemicals from one reagent pad to another causing false readings of color reactions.
  • s
  • Scotochromogenic
    these are Mycobacterium spp. which develop pigment when grown in both light and dark.
  • Semen analysis
    are analyses performed in semen in order to evaluate if there is a problem in a man’s sperm or semen which may be causing infertility.
  • Seminal vesicles
    are two sac-like structures found in the male pelvis that store and produce the majority of the fluid the makes up the semen.  
  • Septic Arthritis
    is a type of arthritis that is caused infection in the joint, and the infection can come from germs that travel through your bloodstream from another part of the body.
  • Serial dilution
    is a kind of dilution wherein the concentration decreases by the same quantity in each successive step.
  • Seroconversion
    refers to the development of detectable specific antibodies to microorganisms in the blood as a result of infection or immunization.  
  • Serous
    refers to various bodily fluids that resemble serum, and are usually pale yellow and transparent and of a benign nature.
  • Sheehan’s syndrome
    is a condition wherein the pituitary gland is damaged during childbirth and is usually caused by hemorrhage or extremely low blood pressure after child labor.
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism
    occurs when there is a variation in the genetic sequence that affects only one of the basic building blocks- Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, or Cytosine in the genome differs between members of a species or paired chromosomes in an individual.
  • Sodium citrate
    is an anticoagulant that is being used for coagulation studies.
  • Sodium fluoride
    is a substance that inhibits the glycolytic enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown of glucose in the blood.
  • Sodium polyanethol sulfonate
    is the anticoagulant that is being used in blood culture specimens in microbiology.
  • Solid phase adherence
    is a technique in which RBC antigens or antibodies are immobilized in microplate wells to detect antigen-antibody interaction.
  • Specific gravity
  • Spectrophotometry
    refers to the method that is being used in chemistry for the measurement of absorption capabilities of certain compounds with reference to wavelengths of light on the ultraviolet and visible light ranges.
  • Staging
    refers to the classification system that uses objective medical criteria to assess the stage of the disease progression.
  • Standard
    is a reagent that is being used in the calibration of an instrument of method.
  • Standard reference materials
    are materials that are being used for the comparison of measurement.
  • Steatorrhea
    refers to the condition wherein there is excess fat in the feces due to poor fat absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.  
  • Steric
    involves the spatial arrangement of molecules.
  • Steroids
    are hormones that are all biosynthesized from cholesterol, using the same initial biochemical pathways.
  • String of pearls
    is the appearance of Bacillus anthracis under the microscope after short-term exposure to penicillin.
  • Subacute thyroiditis
    are conditions that associated with a thyrotoxic phase when thyroid hormones are leaking out into the circulation, a hypothyroid phase when the thyroid gland is repairing itself and a euthyroid phase once the gland is repaired.
  • Surfactant
    these are substances that lowers the surface tension of fluid lining the alveoli.
  • Syncope
    refers to the temporary loss of consciousness, or fainting.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
    an autoimmune disorder wherein the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other organs.  
  • t
  • T cytotoxic cells
    these are cells that specialize in destroying virus-infected cells, tumor cells, and tissue grafts that exist in the cytosol, or contiguous nuclear compartment.
  • T helper cells
    a type of T cell that helps other cells in the immune response by recognizing foreign antigens and secreting substances called cytokines that activate T and B cells.
  • T-test
    is a statistical test that is being used in order to compare the mean of two groups of data.
  • Thoracentesis
    a medical procedure wherein a needle is inserted into the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall in order to collect excess fluid, also known as pleural effusion.  
  • Thrombin
    - also known as coagulation factor II, is a naturally occurring enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which is an integral step in clot formation.  
  • Thrombophlebitis
    is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of a vein.  
  • Thyrotoxicosis
    a state wherein there is thyroid hormone excess in the circulation.
  • Toxicology
    is the science that deals with the study of poisons, their actions, their detection, and treatment of the conditions produced by them.
  • Trans
    alleles found on opposite chromosomes of a homologous pair.
  • Transfusion reaction
    are adverse reactions that occur during, or after 24 hours following transfusion of blood or one of its components.
  • Transient bacteremia
    occurs after procedural manipulation of a particular body site colonized by indigenous flora. Bacteria in transient bacteremia are present in the bloodstream for minutes to a few hours before being cleared from the body, and the result is typically harmless in healthy people.
  • Transient microbial flora
    are microorganisms that are present at body sites for short periods, sometimes for days or weeks.
  • Transposon
    refers to sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition.
  • Traveler’s diarrhea
    refers to a digestive tract disorder that happens as a result of eating or drinking contaminated food or water. It is often caused by Escherichia coli; also known as turista.
  • Trichomoniasis
    is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by a parasite, also known as Trichomonas vaginalis.
  • Troponin I
    a protein that binds to actin in thin microfilaments to hold the actin-tropomyosin complex.
  • Troponin T
    is a part of the troponin complex that is useful in the laboratory diagnosis of a heart attack.
  • True pathogen
    refers to an infectious agent that is capable of producing disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.
  • Tularemia
    is a rare infectious disease that typically infects wild rodents, squirrels, birds, and rabbits. The disease is caused by the bacterium Francisela tularensis.
  • Tumbling motility
    is one of the characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes when viewed with light microscopy.
  • Tumor-associated antigen
    refers to antigens that are not unique to tumors and are also seen on normal cells.
  • Tumor marker
    refers to the substances that are produced by the body in response to cancer growth or by the cancer tissue itself and maybe detected in blood, urine, or tissue samples.
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
    is a cytokine that play important roles in diverse cellular events such as cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and death.
  • Tumor-specific antigen
    refers to antigens that are only present on tumor cells and not normal on any cells.
  • Turbidimetry
    is a method being used in determining the amount of decreased light transmitted through a solution as a result of light scatter by particles.
  • Turista
    is the other name of Traveler’s diarrhea
  • u
  • Ultrafiltrate
    a solution that has passsed through a semipermeable membrane with very small pores in the glomerulus. This solution contains low molecular weight solutes that will eventually become urine after being acted upon by the nephron and exiting the collecting duct.
  • Ultrafiltration
    is a membrane separation technique that is able to remove particulate matter, microorganisms and any pyrogens or endotoxins.
  • Ultratrace element
    is an element that is present in tissues at concentrations of mg/kg amounts and has extremely low daily requirements.
  • Urea
    a compound that is first produced in the liver through the metabolism of nucleic acids and amino acids.
  • Uremia
    is the clinical and laboratory syndrome wherein there is a very high level of urea in the blood.
  • Ureter
    is a tube that carries the urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
  • Uric acid
    the end product of purine metabolism in humans.
  • Urobilinogen
    it is the colorless by-product or derivative of bilirubin reduction.
  • Urolithiasis
    is the process wherein there is the formation of stones in urinary tract.
  • v
  • Valence
    is the number of electrons that are needed to fill the outermost shell of an atom.
  • Validation
    refers to the process of evaluating the performance of a new instrument or test methodology, often in relation to an instrument or methodology that is currently in use.
  • Vasodilator drugs
    these are drugs that open blood vessels, which allow to blood to flow easily.
  • Viability
    refers to the parameter that is being evaluated to determine whether the sperm is dead or alive.
  • Virilization
    it refers to the concurrent presentation of masculine sex characteristics in the female.
  • Virulence
    refers to the ability of a microorganism to cause disease in the host.
  • Viscosity
    is a medical term used to describe the thick appearance of a bodily fluid.
  • Vitamer
    these are different forms of one vitamin.
  • Vitamin
    an organic compound that is required in the diet in small amounts to perform biologic functions for normal maintenance of optimum growth and health.
  • VMA(Vanillylvandelic acid)
    is the major metabolite of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Measurement of this in the urine is a diagnostic test for pheochromocytoma.
  • w
  • Waived tests
    refers to the laboratory testing that employs specific methods designated under CLIA of the FDA as waived. This kind of testing is designated by the CLIA as simple tests that carry the low risk for an incorrect result. The waived test include tests listed in the CLIA regulations, tests cleared(...)
  • Wharton’s jelly
    is a gelatinous substance that has high concentrations of growth factors and cytokines, which have powerful anti inflammatory properties.
  • Whipple disease
    is a rare bacterial infection that most often affects your joints and digestive system. It is caused by the bacterium called Tropheryma whipplei.
  • Woolsorter’s disease
    is considered to be the most deadly form of anthrax. People that work in wool mills, slaughterhouses, and tanneries may breathe in the spores when working with infected animals or contaminated animal products from infected animals.
  • Work practice controls
    refers to methods of working that reduce the likelihood of an exposure incident by changing the way the task is carried out.
  • z
  • Zero-order kinetics
    refers to the reaction wherein a constant amount of the drug is eliminated per unit of time but the rate is independent of the concentration of the drug.
  • Zeta potential
    is the degree of negative charge on the surface of a red blood cell; it is the potential difference between the negative charges on the red blood cells and the cations in the fluid portion of the blood.
  • Zona fasciculata
    is the middle zone of the Adrenal Cortex, deep to the Zona Glomerulosa and superficial to the Zona reticularis. This layer is responsible for the production of glucocorticoids such as 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, and cortisol in humans.
  • Zona glomerulosa
    is the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for the synthesis of mineralocorticoid hormones, which play an important role in the maintenance of electrolyte and water balance in the body.
  • Zona reticularis
    is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for the production of and secretion of androgens.
  • Zygosity
    refers to the degree of similarity or the dissimilarity of genes on the homologous chromosomes of a zygote, or fertilized egg.